The partnership between the World Food Program (WFP) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) dates back to 2003, when both organizations joined together to conduct joint studies in the field of child malnutrition . From 2005 they developed and applied the methodology of the Cost of Hunger in the Latin American and Caribbean region and then in Africa. This time, as a result of the increase in overweight and obesity, in a context in which there is still malnutrition,The analysis model was expanded to measure the social and economic impact of the double burden of malnutrition. After the pilot study, in this second phase of the study, and with the support of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), work has been carried out in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and the Dominican Republic, with the fundamental role in El Salvador of the Government institutions through the National Advisory Committee (CAN) that guided the process of implementing the study from the identification and data collection phase to the validation phase of the report results.
In the case of El Salvador, in the retrospective incidental dimension of the model, effects and costs that the malnutrition generated for 2017 were estimated. In the prospective dimension, the effects and future costs resulting from the malnutrition that affected the Salvadoran population in 2017 They were projected for the 2018-2081 period.
The main effects and costs associated with malnutrition are listed below:
The public cost in health was estimated at 10.3 million dollars, which represents 1.6% of the total public expenditure on health for 2017. A total mortality burden of 290 152 accumulated since 1953 is estimated, showing a Significant decrease since 1983.
The total cost for the education system represents 0.89% of public social spending on education in 2017.
It is estimated that, of the total of 49 888 repetitions observed in 2017, 21% is associated with malnutrition. The total cost of each repetition is USD 822, of which the cost for the educational system reaches USD 740 and the cost for each family is USD 83.
The total cost for productivity losses in the year of analysis represented 1 680.2 million dollars, equivalent to 6.8% of GDP.
Future annual costs, in health, amount to about $ 0.33 million and in education to $ 0.14 million. On the other hand, the annual cost for loss of potential productivity, due to malnutrition, ranges between 11.7 and 19.1 million dollars (depending on the discount rate applied).
The main effects and costs associated with overweight and obesity are listed below:
The total cost for the public health system in 2017, given the burden of diabetes and hypertension, amounted to 586.3 million dollars. This is equivalent to 92.3% of social spending on health. If these other diseases included in the health cost analysis model as a result of malnutrition are incorporated into these estimates, this cost could be increased by up to 17%.
Costs due to loss of potential productivity due to absenteeism related to the burden of morbidity and premature deaths attributable to obesity reached 49.9 million dollars in 2017, which is equivalent to 0.20% of the GDP of that year.
Future annual costs for the public health system are estimated between $ 669 and $ 698 million (depending on the discount rate applied). The annual cost for loss of potential productivity due to absenteeism and premature mortality ranges between 72 and 75 million dollars (depending on the discount rate), equivalent to 0.30% of the GDP of 2017.
Source: World Food Program