Health Care

Russian Researchers Develop Non-Invasive Skin Cancer Diagnosis Using Lasers

Moscow — In a notable advancement for medical diagnostics, Russian scientists have developed a non-invasive method to diagnose skin cancer using laser light scattering techniques, achieving approximately 95% accuracy, as revealed by the Russian Science Fund.

According to Burkina Information Agency, one of the researchers on the team, the high sensitivity of the new approach allows for the diagnosis of skin cancer and holds the potential for very early detection. Efforts are ongoing to refine the method by analyzing how laser light at various wavelengths interacts with skin cells.

The method’s efficacy stems from the discovery that healthy and cancerous skin cells scatter laser light differently, causing discernible changes in the radiation spectrum. This enables screening without the need for expensive, specialized equipment. Two common forms of melanoma – basalioma and squamous cell carcinoma – were studied, with particular focus on cells’ interaction with UV rays.

Habitable Exoplanet Potential in Proxima Centauri System

Additionally, the Russian Academy of Sciences has reported that one of Proxima Centauri’s planets might be habitable. Sergei Ipatov, a researcher with the academy, presented findings suggesting the presence of water on one of the star system’s planets, known as Proxima Centauri B, potentially exceeding the volume of Earth’s oceans.

The star Proxima Centauri is approximately ten times less massive than the Sun, placing Proxima Centauri B within the habitable zone and indicating a potential for life. The planet’s water is theorized to have originated from the orbit of another planet in the same system, designated as planet C. The research speculates on the gravitational interactions that may have contributed to the delivery of water to Proxima Centauri B.

Innovative AI to Enhance Fire Safety at Russian Nuclear Facilities

A leap in safety technology has been made at Tomsk Polytechnic University, where researchers developed a neural algorithm capable of identifying the causes and characteristics of fires in nuclear facilities. The system can also predict the fire’s progression and suggest the most effective countermeasures, reducing the risk of damage or explosion.

Over 1,000 experiments tested the algorithm’s proficiency in managing emergency situations, including fires involving various materials and explosive scenarios. An industrial prototype is expected by the end of the year.

Human Activity Disrupts Global Salt Cycle

On an ecological front, researchers from the University of Maryland have uncovered those human activities emit salts into the environment at rates comparable to natural sources. The findings, published in Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, indicate a disturbance in the global salt cycle, leading to the salinization of freshwater bodies.

By analyzing extensive data on sodium, chlorine, and other mineral salts in ecosystems, the scientists have highlighted the impact of human-induced salt, stemming from fertilizers, road salts, and urban runoff. This has resulted in the doubling of sodium and chlorine concentrations in major rivers since the mid-20th century and has affected an area comparable to some of the world’s largest countries.

Evolutionary Shift Observed in Starfish Ancestry

Lastly, evolutionary biology has provided an intriguing insight as the University of Southampton reported that the ancestors of starfish underwent a significant morphological change, losing their bodies and tails. This finding was established upon discovering that starfish bodies are predominantly composed of cells similar to those found in the heads of other multicellular animals.

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