The Government of Canada’s response to the situation in Ukraine

Ottawa, Ontario – 19 December 2014

The Government of Canada is taking important steps to support Ukraine and impose sanctions against those responsible for the ongoing crisis.

January 26, 2014

Andrew Bennett, Canada’s Ambassador for Religious Freedom, issued a news release recapping the successful visit to Ukraine which he led, and during which he expressed Canada’s ongoing concern about violations of basic freedoms and reinforced Canada’s commitment to the Ukrainian people.

February 14, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a news release which announced funding for supplies, equipment and medical care for Ukrainian activists through a contribution to the International Renaissance Foundation, a Ukrainian non-governmental organization.

February 25, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that Canada would send a delegation of parliamentarians, community leaders and government officials, led by John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to Ukraine on February 28, 2014, to meet with members of the anticipated Ukrainian transitional government and civil society.

February 28, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a news release recapping the successful mission to Ukraine which he led, and during which he and the Canadian delegation of parliamentarians and representatives of the Ukrainian-Canadian community met with key members of the new government.

March 1, 2014

In response to the very serious developments in Ukraine, Prime Minister Stephen Harper convened a meeting of Cabinet Ministers, which was preceded by a bilateral phone call with President Barack Obama. In a statement, the Prime Minister announced:

  • Canada was suspending its engagement in preparation for the G-8 Summit, currently planned for Sochi, and that the Canadian Ambassador in Russia was being recalled for consultations;
  • Canada’s support for the immediate deployment of international monitors from the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe to Ukraine; and,
  • Canada’s engagement in discussions aimed at developing a financial aid package for Ukraine.

March 2, 2014

Canada and other G-7 leaders issued a joint statement condemning the Russian Federation’s clear violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine. In addition, they announced that they would “suspend our participation in activities associated with the preparation of the scheduled G-8 Summit in Sochi in June, until the environment comes back to where the G-8 is able to have a meaningful discussion.”

March 3, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement once again calling on President Vladimir Putin to immediately withdraw his military from Crimea, adding that the situation in Ukraine remains extremely serious for global peace and security. He added that he has cancelled government representation at the Paralympic Games and instructed officials to review all planned bilateral interaction with Russia.

March 3, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper spoke with Arseniy Yatsenyuk, Prime Minister of Ukraine, about developments in Crimea and other regions in the south and east of Ukraine. Prime Minister Harper condemned in the strongest terms President Putin’s military intervention in Ukraine.

March 4, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing that, effective immediately, all planned bilateral activities between the Canadian Armed Forces and the military of the Russian Federation were suspended. This included exercises, such as NORAD’s Exercise Vigilant Eagle, and scheduled meetings.

March 5, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing that, at the request of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, Canada would freeze the assets of members of the Yanukovych regime. As a result, 18 people, including members of the former Yanukovych regime, members of their families, and their close associates, were listed in regulations under the Freezing Assets of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act.

Canada also suspended its participation in the Canada-Russia Intergovernmental Economic Commission.

Prime Minister Harper announced that at Ukraine’s request, Canada, along with a number of other member countries of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, would participate in a military observer mission that would report on military activities in Ukraine. Canada contributed two military observers.

March 6, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement identifying Russia’s invasion of Ukraine as an act of aggression, and a clear violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and international law. He further added that Canada would not recognize a referendum held in a region currently under illegal military occupation.

March 12, 2014

Canada and other G-7 leaders issued a statement calling on the Russian Federation to cease all efforts to change the status of Crimea contrary to Ukrainian law and in violation of international law. They called on the Russian Federation to immediately halt actions supporting a referendum on the territory of Crimea regarding its status, in direct violation of the Constitution of Ukraine.

March 13, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing $220 million in support to help Ukraine stabilize its economy and promote economic and social development. The support will be provided in the form of a loan or loan guarantee, conditional on a broader package that includes International Monetary Fund (IMF) support for Ukraine. $20 million of this commitment will assist the IMF in delivering technical assistance in order to help Ukraine manage its economic transition and financial sector reforms.

March 16, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement on the results of the Crimean “referendum,” reiterating that this “referendum” was illegitimate, had no legal effect, and that Canada did not recognize its outcome.

March 17, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing further economic sanctions under the Special Economic Measures Act and additional travel bans against Ukrainian and Russian officials.

March 17, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper met with Vadym Prystaiko, Ambassador of Ukraine to Canada, to discuss the ongoing situation in Ukraine.

March 18, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing economic sanctions and travel bans against an additional 17 Ukrainian and Russian officials responsible for undermining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, and for facilitating Russian military action against Ukraine.

March 21, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing economic sanctions against 14 additional Russian officials and one financial institution, Bank Rossiya. Travel bans were also imposed on these 14 individuals.

March 22, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release following the conclusion of a visit to Ukraine where he met with Acting President Oleksandr Turchynov and Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk. He also announced Canada’s contribution of $775,000 to a political and security monitoring mission to Ukraine, led by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

March 24, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, meeting with other G-7 leaders in The Hague, issued the Hague Declaration. In the Declaration, the leaders announced that they would not attend a planned G-8 Summit in Sochi but would instead convene as a G-7, without Russia, in Brussels in June 2014. They also reaffirmed their “support for Ukraine’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence” while condemning “Russia’s illegal attempt to annex Crimea.”

March 27, 2014

Canada co-sponsored a resolution on Ukraine at the United Nations General Assembly. The resolution – supported by 100 member-States, with only 11 voting against – reaffirmed Ukraine’s sovereignty, political independence and territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders, and underscored the invalidity of the referendum in Crimea.

April 12, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement announcing that Canada was imposing sanctions on two additional individuals and on a Crimean oil and gas company, Chornomornaftogaz.

April 17, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing that Canada was offering the following capabilities to enhance the readiness of NATO allies: six Royal Canadian Air Force CF-18 fighter aircrafts and up to 20 staff officers to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe to assist NATO planning efforts.

April 23, 2014

In the lead up to Ukraine’s Presidential election, Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing $11 million in support of 500 observers travelling to Ukraine to monitor the upcoming Presidential election.

April 25, 2014

Canada and other G-7 leaders issued a joint statement expressing deep concern at the continued efforts by separatists backed by Russia to destabilize Eastern Ukraine. Leaders also committed to taking further steps to ensure a peaceful and stable environment for the May 25 Presidential election.

April 28, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing economic sanctions against nine additional Russians and two Russian banks. Travel bans were also imposed on the nine individuals.

April 28, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that six CF-18 fighter aircraft would leave on April 29, 2014, for Romania as part of the Government of Canada’s contributions to NATO measures to reassure Allies in Central and Eastern Europe.

April 30, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing that Canada would commit Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship Regina, deployed at the time in the Arabian Sea, to NATO Standing Maritime Forces to further demonstrate support for Alliance solidarity.

May 2, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that Canadian Army soldiers would take part in Exercise ORZEL ALERT in Swidwin, Poland, from May 5 to 9, 2014, as part of NATO assurance measures in Central and Eastern Europe.

May 4, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing economic sanctions against 16 additional Russian entities.

May 12, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing economic sanctions and travel bans against an additional 12 Ukrainian and Russian individuals.

May 20, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that Senator Raynell Andreychuk and former Ontario Premier Mike Harris would lead the Canadian bilateral election observation mission to Ukraine, joining hundreds of Canadian election observers arriving in Ukraine.

May 27, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement congratulating Petro Poroshenko on the results of the May 25th Presidential election in Ukraine.

June 3, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that he would be travelling to Kyiv, Ukraine, on June 7, 2014, to attend the swearing-in ceremony of Petro Poroshenko as the new President of Ukraine.

June 7, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement from Kyiv, Ukraine, on the occasion of the swearing-in of Petro Poroshenko as President of Ukraine.

June 21, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing further economic sanctions and travel bans against 11 Russian and Ukrainian individuals plus one additional entity.

June 27, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release welcoming the signing of the remaining chapters of the European Union (EU)-Ukraine Association Agreement which provide for a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between the EU and Ukraine.

July 9, 2014

Ed Fast, Minister of International Trade, issued a news release announcing that he would lead a Canadian delegation on a three-day trade and development mission to Ukraine to demonstrate Canada’s continued support for the country. Minister Fast would meet with Ukrainian Economic Development and Trade Minister Pavlo Sheremeta to discuss ways to advance the Canada-Ukraine Free Trade Agreement, and announced $100,000 to support Ukraine’s Economic Advisory Council.

July 11, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing additional economic sanctions and travel bans against 14 individuals.

July 11, 2014

Ed Fast, Minister of International Trade, on behalf of Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, issued a news release announcing $19.6 million in Canadian support to train horticultural farmers to improve agricultural practices and have better access to financing and new markets in Ukraine.

July 11, 2014

Ed Fast, Minister of International Trade, issued a news release following the conclusion of his three-day trade and development mission to Ukraine that built on the strong Canada-Ukraine people-to-people ties, explored further deeper economic cooperation, and created opportunities for Canada-Ukrainian partnerships.

July 14, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement expressing concern over the escalating violence in Ukraine and called on the Putin regime to show good faith in talks with Kyiv.

July 17, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement in response to the downing of a Malaysia Airlines passenger aircraft in Eastern Ukraine.

July 21, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing the intent to implement economic sanctions against a broad range of entities related to various Russian sectors.

July 23, 2014

Parliamentary Secretary James Bezan and Member of Parliament Ted Opitz, on behalf of Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, issued a news release announcing $3.2 million in Canadian support to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe’s Human Rights Training for Judges project to strengthen the justice system and rule of law in Ukraine.

July 24, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing new economic sanctions and travel bans against Ukrainian individuals, as well as economic sanctions against Ukrainian entities and a broad range of entities related to various Russian sectors.

July 26, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper wrote an opinion-editorial published in The Globe and Mail newspaper titled “Our duty is to stand firm in the face of Russian aggression.”

July 29, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing the intent to impose additional sanctions on Russia.

July 30, 2014

Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, issued a news release announcing $8.1 million in Canadian support over three years for Strengthening Multi-Party Democracy, a new project that will help strengthen democracy and the role of civil society in Ukraine.

July 30, 2014

Canada and other G-7 leaders issued a joint statement expressing their grave concern over Russia’s continued actions to undermine Ukraine’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence. In addition, they demanded a prompt, full, unimpeded and transparent international investigation into the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 and a cease-fire at and around the crash site. They further called for a peaceful settlement of the crisis in Ukraine, a sustainable general cease-fire, and for Russia to end its support to separatist groups and ensure effective border control.

August 1, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement marking the opening of Canada’s National Ukrainian Festival. He took the opportunity to underline the destabilizing impact of the Putin regime’s ongoing military activity in Ukraine.

August 5, 2014

Parliamentary Secretary Lois Brown, together with Parliamentary Secretary Jeff Watson, issued a news release announcing $3.6 million in additional funding to a successful initiative that is helping establish a more effective and responsive juvenile justice system in Ukraine.

August 6, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing additional economic sanctions and travel bans against 19 Russian and Ukrainian individuals, and economic sanctions against 22 Russian and Ukrainian groups and economic entities.

August 7, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement announcing that a Canadian CC-130J Hercules would leave on August 7, 2014, from Canadian Forces Base Trenton, in order to deliver important non-kinetic (non-lethal) security assistance to Ukraine which would help the country secure its eastern border against Russian aggression.

August 15, 2014

Parliamentary Secretary Lois Brown issued a news release announcing $3,832,000 in Canadian support over five years to the International Finance Corporation for its Engaging the Private Sector for Small and Medium Farm Business Development project that will help improve the performance of small and medium agricultural enterprises in Ukraine.

August 24, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement on the occasion of the 23rd anniversary of Ukraine’s independence. He took the opportunity to call on the Putin regime to cease all provocative military activity in Ukraine.

August 28, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement condemning further Russian incursion into Ukraine and calling on Russia to immediately cease its aggressive acts, respect Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, withdraw its forces, and end the flow of arms, including anti-aircraft systems across the border.

September 1, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that the Canadian Air Task Force (ATF) had officially joined NATO’s Baltic Air Policing (BAP) mission following a hand-over ceremony in Siauliai, Lithuania, as Canada’s continues to promote security and stability in Central and Eastern Europe in the face of increasing Russian hostility. While participating in BAP, four CF-188 Hornet aircraft and more than 130 airmen and airwomen from the Royal Canadian Air Force will work with NATO Allies from September to December 2014, in order to preserve the integrity of the airspace of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and react to any intrusions.

September 2, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that approximately 100 Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) soldiers would participate in Exercise STEADFAST JAVELIN II in Latvia as part of Operation REASSURANCE, Canada’s commitment to working with our NATO Allies to promote security and stability in Central and Eastern Europe.

September 4, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that Canada will be providing support for two initiatives that will help Ukraine and other NATO allies counter the threat posed by Russia’s military expansion in the region. Support of $1 million will be provided through the NATO Trust Funds to build up Ukrainian command and control and communications and computer capabilities to implement NATO standards throughout the Ukrainian Armed Forces. In addition, three NATO Centres of Excellence in the Baltic States – Cooperative Cyber Defence, Energy Security and Strategic Communications – will each receive $1 million (a total of $3 million) to help deter Russian operations in Eastern Europe.

September 4, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship Toronto would work with vessels from several partner nations in the Black Sea as part of Operation REASSURANCE from September 6 to 27, 2014. In the wake of Russia’s aggression in Central and Eastern Europe, these training exercises and maritime situational awareness operations served to enhance maritime security in the Black Sea.

September 4, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that 13 Canadian Army soldiers would participate in Exercise RAPID TRIDENT 14, a multinational exercise at the International Peacekeeping and Security Centre in Yavoriv, Ukraine from September 11 to 28, 2014. The Exercise focused on improving stability and peace support operations in the region.

September 11, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release welcoming the report produced by Canada’s election observer mission on the May 25, 2014 Ukrainian Presidential election. The Prime Minister received the report from Senator Raynell Andreychuk and former Ontario Premier Mike Harris, co-chairs of the team, in Toronto.

September 11, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release announcing that President Petro Poroshenko of Ukraine would make his first official visit to Canada on September 17, 2014. In the release the Prime Minister also indicated that Canada is committed to contributing to free and fair elections in Ukraine and will send short and long-term observers to the October 26, 2014, Ukrainian Parliamentary elections.

September 16, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a news release detailing the specifics of Canada’s election observer mission in Ukraine.

September 16, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement announcing further economic sanctions and travel bans against four Russian individuals, and economic sanctions against five Russian entities and one financial institution that bear responsibility for the crisis in Ukraine. He also announced that Canada will be sending more than 300 electoral observers to participate in three different missions monitoring the Ukrainian Parliamentary elections that will be taking place in Ukraine on October 26, 2014.

September 17, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a news release welcoming the visit by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to Canada. During the visit, the leaders committed to working towards a bilateral free trade agreement. Prime Minister Harper also announced the following two measures that will promote economic and social development in Ukraine:

  • Canada and Ukraine have reached an agreement on the provision of Canada’s $200 million loan to Ukraine to promote economic and financial sector reforms in the country; and,
  • $3 million in additional humanitarian assistance is being provided to Ukraine to assist the estimated 3.9 million people living in areas affected by violence, as well as the nearly 200,000 individuals registered as internally displaced throughout Ukraine.

September 25, 2014

On the margins of the United Nations General Assembly, John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and his G-7 counterparts issued a joint statement welcoming the Minsk agreements of September 5 and 19, 2014, as an important step towards a sustainable, mutually agreed ceasefire, a secure Russian-Ukrainian border and the return of peace and stability to Eastern Ukraine with the establishment of a ‘special status’ zone. The Ministers urged Russia to meet its own commitments to the Minsk agreement, including by withdrawing all of its forces, weapons and equipment from Ukraine, securing and respecting the international border between the two countries with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe monitoring, and ensuring that all hostages are released.

October 3, 2014

Parliamentary Secretary James Bezan, on behalf of Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and La Francophonie, issued a news release announcing $9.76 million in Canadian support over five years for Quality and Accessible Legal Aid, a new project to help provide legal aid services to the most vulnerable in Ukraine.

October 6, 2014

Andrew Bennett, Canada’s Ambassador for Religious Freedom, issued a news release announcing he would visit Kyiv and Lviv, Ukraine, from October 6 to 11, 2014. During his visit, Ambassador Bennett would meet with government officials, religious leaders, as well as civil society leaders to demonstrate Canada’s interest and commitment to religious freedom through support to Ukrainian institutions and to support the Ukrainian people.

October 8, 2014

Andrew Bennett, Canada’s Ambassador for Religious Freedom, issued a news release announcing two projects to be supported by the Religious Freedom Fund in Ukraine to foster the development of a political culture in Ukraine that facilitates democratization. This includes $950,000 in Canadian support over three years for Promoting Security for Religious Communities and Others in Ukraine and $240,000 in Canadian support over two years for Promotion of Religious Tolerance and Reconciliation in Ukrainian Civil Society.

October 13, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship Toronto (HMCS) was joining Exercise NOBLE JUSTIFICATION as part of her Operation REASSURANCE NATO deployment in response to Russia’s aggressive military actions against Ukraine. HMCS Toronto and other Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 warships will conduct Task Force training exercises and force integration activities in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea region from October 13 to 26, 2014.

October 24, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement ahead of Ukraine’s Parliamentary elections commending the people of Ukraine for their resiliency and determination for a better future.

October 26, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release following the completion of Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship Toronto‘s participation in Exercise NOBLE JUSTIFICATION as part of Operation REASSURANCE deployment in the Mediterranean Sea in response to the Putin regime’s aggressive military actions against Ukraine.

October 26, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement congratulating the people of Ukraine following the completion of voting in the October 26, 2014, Parliamentary elections.

October 28, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement following a meeting in Ottawa with his U.S. counterpart, Secretary of State John Kerry, where they discussed their cooperation on a number of international issues, including the situation in Ukraine.

November 5, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement strongly condemning Russia’s continued provocative actions following reports that its troops were moving closer to the border with Ukraine.

November 13, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release following the completion of Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship Toronto‘s participation in the Turkish-led Exercise MAVI BALINA as part of Operation REASSURANCE deployment in the Mediterranean Sea in response to the Putin regime’s aggressive military actions against Ukraine.

November 13, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement condemning the escalation of violence in eastern Ukraine and reported movement of additional Russian troops and weapons into Ukraine.

November 16, 2014

On the margins of the G-20 Summit, Prime Minister Stephen Harper met with Herman Van Rompuy, outgoing President of the European Council, and Jean-Claude Juncker, the new President of the European Commission, where they asserted the importance of being resolute in the face of the ongoing violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity by the Putin regime.

November 18, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, delivered a speech at the NATO Council of Canada Conference where he addresses Putin’s narrative on Ukraine.

November 21, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a statement on the first anniversary of Maidan protests in Ukraine against the corrupt Yanukovych regime.

November 26, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that Canada will provide further non-lethal military equipment to the Ukrainian Armed Forces. The donated military gear will include equipment such as tactical communications systems, explosive ordinance disposal equipment, tactical medical kits and night vision goggles. National Defence will deliver winterized kits to expand the capabilities of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.

December 2, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement welcoming the forming of a new government in Ukraine.

December 4, 2014

John Baird, Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued a news release at the conclusion of the first part of a visit to Europe and the Middle East, during which he attended the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Foreign Ministerial Meeting in Brussels, Belgium, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Foreign Ministerial Council in Basel, Switzerland. The Ukraine crisis was front and centre at the OSCE ministerial council and Minister Baird reaffirmed Canada’s commitment and support for Ukraine and recognized the role that the OSCE needs to play.

December 8, 2014

Rob Nicholson, Minister of National Defence, issued a news release announcing that Canada had signed a Declaration of Intent with Ukraine for joint military training and capacity building in response to Russia’s aggression in that country.

December 19, 2014

Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced additional economic sanctions and travel bans against 20 Russian and Ukrainian individuals, and new export restrictions on technologies used in Russia’s oil exploration and extractive sector.